Zulfikar Ali Bhutto
14 August 1973 – 5 July 1977
|President||Fazal Ilahi Chaudhry|
|Preceded by||Nurul Amin|
|Succeeded by||Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq|
20 December 1971 – 13 August 1973
|Prime Minister||Nurul Amin|
|Preceded by||Yahya Khan|
|Succeeded by||Fazal Ilahi Chaudhry|
April 14, 1972 – April 12, 1973
|Preceded by||Abdul Jabbar Khan|
|Succeeded by||Fazal Ilahi Chaudhry|
20 December 1971 – 28 March 1977
|President||Fazal Ilahi Chaudhry|
|Preceded by||Yahya Khan|
|Succeeded by||Aziz Ahmed|
15 June 1963 – 12 September 1966
|Preceded by||Muhammad Ali Bogra|
|Succeeded by||Syed Sharifuddin Pirzada|
|Born||5 January 1928(1928-01-05)
Larkana, Bombay Presidency, British India
|Died||4 April 1979(1979-04-04) (aged 51)
Rawalpindi, Punjab, Pakistan
|Political party||Pakistan Peoples Party|
|Alma mater||University of Southern California
University of California, Berkeley
Christ Church, Oxford
|Religion||IslamAsr, Vali (2007). The Shia Revival: How Conflicts within Islam Will Shape the Future. W. W. Norton. pp. 88–90. ISBN 978-0393062113. </ref>|
Zulfikar Ali Bhutto (Urdu: ذوالفقار علی بھٹو, Sindhi: ذوالفقار علي ڀُٽو, IPA: [zʊlfɪqɑːɾ ɑli bʱʊʈːoː]; 5 January 1928 – 4 April 1979) was a Pakistani politician who served as the fourth President of Pakistan from 1971 to 1973 and as the ninth Prime Minister of Pakistan from 1973 to 1977. He was the founder of the Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP), the largest and most influential political party in Pakistan. His daughter Benazir Bhutto also served twice as prime minister.
Educated at the University of California, Berkeley, in the United States and University of Oxford in the United Kingdom, Bhutto was noted for his economic initiatives and authoring and administrating Pakistan’s nuclear deterrence programme, for this he is known in the world as Father of Nuclear Programme. He was executed in 1979 after the Supreme Court of Pakistan sentenced him to death for authorizing the murder of a political opponent, in a move that many believe was done under the directives of General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq.
Zulfikar Ali Bhutto was born to Khursheed Begum née Lakhi Bai and Sir Shah Nawaz Bhutto. He was born in a prominent Sindhi Rajput Muslim family. Bhutto’s father was a prominent political figure in the Indian colonial government. Bhutto was born in his parent’s residence near Larkana in what later became the province of Sindh. He was their third child — their first one, Sikandar Ali, died from pneumonia at age seven in 1914 and the second child, Imdad Ali, died of cirrhosis at the age of 39 in 1953. His father was the prime minster of junagadh state, who enjoyed an influential relationship with the officials of the British Raj. As a young boy, Bhutto moved to Worli Seaface in Bombay (now Mumbai) to study at the Cathedral and John Connon School. During this period, he also became a student activist in the League’s Pakistan Movement. In 1943, his marriage was arranged with Shireen Amir Begum (died 19 January 2003 in Karachi). He later left her, however, in order to remarry. In 1947, Bhutto was admitted to the University of Southern California.
In 1949, Bhutto transferred to the University of California, Berkeley, where he earned an honours degree in political science. Here he would become interested in the theories of socialism, delivering a series of lectures on the feasibility of socialism in Islamic countries.During this time, Bhutto’s father, Sir Shahnawaz, played a controversial role in the affairs of the state of Junagadh (now in Gujarat). Coming to power in a palace coup as the dewan, he secured the accession of the state to Pakistan, which was ultimately negated by Indian intervention in December 1947. In June 1950 Bhutto travelled to England to study law at Christ Church, Oxford. Upon finishing his studies, he was called to the bar at Lincoln’s Inn in the year 1953 (the same school at which Muhammad Ali Jinnah studied law) .
Bhutto married his second wife, the Iranian-Kurdish Begum Nusrat Ispahani who was a Shi’a Muslim, in Karachi on 8 September 1951. Their first child, his daughter Benazir, was born in 1953. She was followed by Murtaza in 1954, a second daughter, Sanam, in 1957, and the youngest child, Shahnawaz Bhutto, in 1958. He accepted the post of lecturer at the Sindh Muslim College, from where he was also awarded an honorary law degree by the then college President, Mr. Hassanally A. Rahman before establishing himself in a legal practice in Karachi. He also took over the management of his family’s estate and business interests after his father’s death.
In 1957, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto became the youngest member of Pakistan’s delegation to the United Nations. He would address the United Nations Sixth Committee on Aggression on 25 October 1957 and lead Pakistan’s deputation to the first United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea in 1958. In the same year, Bhutto became the youngest Pakistani cabinet minister when he was given charge of the energy ministry by President Muhammad Ayub Khan, who had seized power and declared martial law. He was subsequently promoted to head the ministries of commerce, information and industries. Bhutto became a close and trusted advisor to Ayub, rising in influence and power despite his youth and relative inexperience in politics. Bhutto aided Ayub in negotiating the Indus Water Treaty with India in 1960. In 1961, Bhutto negotiated an oil exploration agreement with the Soviet Union, which also agreed to provide economic and technical aid to Pakistan.
In 1962, he was appointed Pakistan’s foreign minister. His swift rise to power also brought him national prominence and popularity.
As foreign minister, Bhutto significantly transformed Pakistan’s hitherto pro-Western foreign policy. While maintaining a prominent role for Pakistan within the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization and the Central Treaty Organization, Bhutto began asserting a foreign policy course for Pakistan that was independent of U.S. influence. Bhutto criticised the U.S. for providing military aid to India during and after the Sino-Indian War of 1962, which was seen as an abrogation of Pakistan’s alliance with the U.S. Bhutto worked to establish stronger relations with the People’s Republic of China. Bhutto visited Beijing and helped Ayub negotiate trade and military agreements with the Chinese regime, which agreed to help Pakistan in a large number of military and industrial projects. Bhutto also signed the Sino-Pakistan Boundary Agreement on 2 March 1963 that transferred 750 square kilometres of territory from Pakistan-administered Kashmir to Chinese control. Bhutto asserted his belief in non-alignment, making Pakistan an influential member in non-aligned organisations. Believing in pan-Islamic unity, Bhutto developed closer relations with nations such as Indonesia, Saudi Arabia and other Arab states.
Bhutto advocated hardline and confrontational policies against India over the Kashmir conflict and other issues. A 17 day war broke out between Pakistan and India on 6 September 1965 known as the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965. This war was an aftermath of brief skirmishes that took place between March and August 1965 on the international boundaries in the Rann of Kutch, Kashmir and Punjab. Bhutto joined Ayub in Tashkent to negotiate a peace treaty with the Indian Prime Minister Lal Bahadur Shastri. Ayub and Shastri agreed to exchange prisoners of war and withdraw respective forces to pre-war boundaries. This agreement was deeply unpopular in Pakistan, causing major political unrest against Ayub’s regime. Bhutto’s criticism of the final agreement caused a major rift between him and Ayub Khan. Initially denying the rumours, Bhutto resigned in June 1966 and expressed strong opposition to Ayub’s regime.
Pakistan Peoples Party
Following his resignation, large crowds gathered to listen to Bhutto’s speech upon his arrival in Lahore on 21 June 1967. Tapping a wave of anger and opposition against Ayub, Bhutto began travelling across the country to deliver political speeches. In a speech in October 1966 Bhutto declared the PPP’s beliefs, "Islam is our faith, democracy is our policy, socialism is our economy. All power to the people.” On 30 November 1967 Bhutto founded the Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP) in Lahore, establishing a strong base of political support in Punjab, Sindh and amongst the Muhajir communities. Bhutto’s party became a part of the pro-democracy movement involving diverse political parties from all across Pakistan. PPP activists staged large protests and strikes in different parts of the country, increasing pressure on Ayub to resign. Bhutto’s arrest on 12 November 1968 sparked greater political unrest. After his release, Bhutto attended the Round Table Conference called by Ayub in Rawalpindi, but refused to accept Ayub’s continuation in office and the East Pakistani politician Sheikh Mujibur Rahman‘s Six point movement for regional autonomy.
Following Ayub’s resignation, the new president Gen. Yahya Khan promised to hold parliamentary elections on 7 December 1970. Bhutto’s party won a large number of seats from constituencies in West Pakistan. However, Sheikh Mujib’s Awami League won an an absolute majority in the Pakistan’s national legislature (all from East Pakistan). Bhutto refused to accept an Awami League government and famously promised to "break the legs” of any elected PPP member who dared to attend the inaugural session of the National Assembly of Pakistan. Capitalising on West Pakistani fears of East Pakistani separatism, Bhutto demanded that Sheikh Mujib form a coalition with the PPP. Under substantial pressure from Bhutto and other West Pakistani political parties, Yahya postponed the inaugural session of the National Assembly after talks with Sheikh Mujib failed. Amidst popular outrage in East Pakistan, Sheikh Mujib declared the independence of "Bangladesh". On 26th March 1971 after Mujib was arrested by the Pakistani Army, which had been ordered by Yahya to suppress political activities. . While supportive of the army’s actions and working to rally international support, Bhutto distanced himself from the Yahya regime. He refused to accept Yahya’s scheme to appoint Bengali politician Nurul Amin as prime minister, with Bhutto as deputy prime minister. Indian intervention in East Pakistan led to the very bitter defeat of Pakistani forces, who surrendered on 16 December 1971. Bhutto and others condemned Yahya for failing to protect Pakistan’s unity. Isolated, Yahya resigned on 20 December and transferred power to Bhutto, who became the president, army commander-in-chief as well as the first civilian chief martial law administrator.
Leader of Pakistan
As president, Bhutto addressed the nation via radio and television, saying "My dear countrymen, my dear friends, my dear students, labourers, peasants… those who fought for Pakistan… We are facing the worst crisis in our country’s life, a deadly crisis. We have to pick up the pieces, very small pieces, but we will make a new Pakistan, a prosperous and progressive Pakistan.” He placed Yahya under house arrest, brokered a ceasefire and ordered the release of Sheikh Mujib, who was held prisoner by the army. To implement this, Bhutto reversed the verdict of Mujib’s court trial that had taken place earlier, in which the presiding Brigadier-General Rahimuddin Khan (later 4-star General) had sentenced Mujib to death. Appointing a new cabinet, Bhutto appointed Lieutenant General Gul Hasan as Chief of Army Staff. On 2 January 1972 Bhutto announced the nationalisation of all major industries, including iron and steel, heavy engineering, heavy electricals, petrochemicals, cement and public utilities. A new labour policy was announced increasing workers rights and the power of trade unions. Although he came from a feudal background himself, Bhutto announced reforms limiting land ownership and a government take-over of over a million acres (4,000 km²) to distribute to landless peasants. More than 2,000 civil servants were dismissed on charges of corruption. Bhutto also dismissed the military chiefs on 3 March after they refused orders to suppress a major police strike in Punjab. He appointed General Tikka Khan as the new Chief of the Army Staff in March 1972 as he felt the General would not interfere in political matters and would concentrate on rehabilitating the Pakistan Army. Bhutto convened the National Assembly on 14 April, rescinded martial law on 21 April and charged the legislators with writing a new constitution.
Bhutto visited India to meet Prime Minister Indira Gandhi and negotiated a formal peace agreement and the release of 93,000 Pakistani prisoners of war. The two leaders signed the Shimla Agreement, which committed both nations to establish a new yet temporary Cease-fire Line in Kashmir and obligated them to resolve disputes peacefully through bilateral talks. Bhutto also promised to hold a future summit for the peaceful resolution of the Kashmir dispute and pledged to recognise Bangladesh. Although he secured the release of Pakistani soldiers held by India, Bhutto was criticised by many in Pakistan for allegedly making too many concessions to India. It is theorised that Bhutto feared his downfall if he could not secure the release of Pakistani soldiers and the return of territory occupied by Indian forces. Bhutto established an atomic power development programme and inaugurated the first Pakistani atomic reactor, built in collaboration with Canada in Karachi on 28 November. On 30 March, 59 military officers were arrested by army troops for allegedly plotting a coup against Bhutto, who appointed then-Brigadier Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq to head a military tribunal to investigate and try the suspects. The National Assembly approved the new constitution, which Bhutto signed into effect on 12 April. The constitution proclaimed an "Islamic Republic” in Pakistan with a parliamentary form of government. On 10 August, Bhutto turned over the post of president to Fazal Ilahi Chaudhry, assuming the office of prime minister instead.
Bhutto officially recognised Bangladesh in July. Making an official visit to Bangladesh, Bhutto was criticised in Pakistan for laying flowers at a memorial for Bangladeshi freedom fighters. Bhutto continued to develop closer relations with China as well as Saudi Arabia and other Muslim nations. Bhutto hosted the Second Islamic Summit of Muslim nations in Lahore between 22 February and 24 February in 1974.
Bhutto, however, faced considerable pressure from Islamic religious leaders to declare the Ahmadiya communities as non-Muslims. Failing to restrain sectarian violence and rioting, Bhutto and the National Assembly amended the constitution to that effect. Bhutto intensified his nationalisation programme, extending government control over agricultural processing and consumer industries. Bhutto also, with advice from Admiral S.M. Ahsan, inaugurated Port Qasim, designed to expand harbour facilities near Karachi. However, the performance of the Pakistani economy declined amidst increasing bureaucracy and a decline in private sector confidence. In a surprise move in 1976, Bhutto appointed Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq to replace Gen. Tikka Khan, surpassing five generals senior to Zia.
President of Pakistan
A Pakistan International Airlines flight was sent to fetch Bhutto from New York, who at that time was presenting Pakistan’s case before the United Nations Security Council on the East Pakistan Crises. Bhutto returned home on 18 December 1971. On 20 December, he was taken to the President House in Rawalpindi where he took over two positions from Yahya Khan, one as President and the other as Chief Martial Law Administrator. Thus he was the first civilian Chief Martial Law Administrator of the dismembered Pakistan.
The new President inherited a disheartened war-weary nation. In this dark hour, he addressed the nation and promised to fight back. Bhutto’s intentions to restore national confidence were in several shapes. He spoke about democracy, a new Constitution, and a modified federal and parliamentary system. He reached out to opposition leaders Abdul Wali Khan and Mufti Mahmud, signing an agreement regarding lifting the emergency and allowing opposition governments to be formed. He took steps to stabilise the situation by successfully negotiating the return of the 93,000 prisoners of war and a peaceful settlement with India. He took steps to ameliorate poverty and to revitalise the economy, industry and agriculture.
He gave the third Constitution to the country and established civilian authority over the armed forces in the political setup. In early 1972, Bhutto nationalised ten categories of major industries and withdrew Pakistan from the Commonwealth of Nations and S.E.A.T.O. On 1 March, he introduced extensive land reforms. On 2 July 1972, he signed the Simla Agreement with India for exchange of the occupied territories and release of Prisoners of War.
After the 1973 Constitution was promulgated, Bhutto was elected by the House to be the Prime Minister, and he was sworn in on 14 August 1973.
Father of the Nuclear weapons program
Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto was the founder of Pakistan’s nuclear weapons research programme. In October 1965, the then-Foreign Minister of Pakistan, Mr. Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto visited Vienna when Munir Ahmad Khan informed him of the status of Indian nuclear programme and the options Pakistan had to develop its own nuclear capability. Both agreed on the need for Pakistan to develop a nuclear deterrent to meet India’s nuclear capacity.
After India’s nuclear test — codename Pokhran-I — on May 1974. Bhutto sensed a great danger for Pakistan. In a press conference held on May 1974, shortly after India’s nuclear test. Prime Minister Bhutto said "even if we have to eat grass, we will make nuclear bombs". On the 20 January 1972, Prime Minister Bhutto rallied a conference of nuclear scientists and engineers at Multan. At the Multan meeting, while scientists were wondering why the President who had so much on his hands in those trying days was paying so much attention to the scientists and engineers in the nuclear field. Prime Minister Bhutto said:” Look, we’re going to have the bomb. He asked them: "Can you give it to me? And how long will it take it to make a bomb?". The academic scientists replied: "Oh, yes, yes, You can have it.” There was a lively debate on the time needed to make the bomb, and finally one scientist dared to say that maybe it could be done in five years. Prime Minister Bhutto smiled, lifted his hand, and dramatically thrust forward three fingers and said: "Three years, I want it in three years". The atmosphere suddenly became electric. It was then that one of the junior scientist-dr. S.A.Butt (a nuclear chemist), who under Munir Ahmad Khan‘s guiding hand would come to play a major role in making the fission weapon possible — jumped to his feet and clamoured for his leader’s attention. Dr. S.A Butt replied: "It can be done in three years". Prime Minister Bhutto was very much amused and he said: "Well, much as I appreciate your enthusiasm, this is a very serious political decision, which Pakistan must make, and perhaps all Third World countries must make one day, because it is coming. So can you do it?” And the scientist replied, "Yes, we can do it, given the resources and given the facilities". Bhutto’s answer was simple, "I shall find you the resources and I shall find you the facilities". Despite Pakistan limited financial resources, Bhutto was so enthusiastic about Pakistan nuclear bomb, that he is reported to have said "Pakistanis will eat grass but make a nuclear bomb."
Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission‘s militarisation was initiated in January 20th of 1972 and, in its initial years, was implemented by General Tikka Khan. The Karachi Nuclear Power Plant was inaugurated by Bhutto during his role as President of Pakistan at the end of 1972. Long before, as Minister for Fuel, Power and National Resources, he has played a key role in setting up of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission. Wanting a capable administrator, Bhutto sought Lieutenant-General Rahimuddin Khan to chair the commission, which Rahimuddin declined. Instead Prime Minister Bhutto chose a U.S. trained nuclear engineer Mr. Munir Ahmad Khan as chairman of Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC), Munir Ahmad Khan was a close friend of his. The Kahuta facility was also established by the Bhutto Administration, and brought under nuclear scientist Dr. Abdul Qadeer Khan and the Pakistan Army Corps of Engineers‘ Lieutenant General Zahid Ali Akbar Khan.
A book written by Maulana Kausar Niazi, a close confidant of Bhutto, gives a somewhat different perspective. The Atomic Energy Commission officials had misguided Bhutto and he sought on a along journey to try to get Nuclear fuel reprocessing plant from France. It was on a later advice of A.Q.Khan that no fuel existed to reprocess, Bhutto tried to show he was still interested in that expensive route and was relieved when Kissinger persuaded the French to cancel the deal. By the time Bhutto was ousted little had been done and Pakistani nukes were actually made under Zia’s era, under the watchful eyes of several generals including Ishaq Khan.
It has been speculated recently in the press that Qadeer Khan’s uranium enrichment designs were used by the Chinese in exchange for Uranium Hexafluoride and some weapons grade uranium . Later on this weapons grade uranium was offered back to the Chinese as the Pakistanis used their own materials.
Ordering military operation in Balochistan
Following the secession of East Pakistan, calls for the independence of Balochistan by Baloch nationalists grew. Surveying the political instability, Bhutto’s central government sacked two provincial governments within six months, arrested the two chief ministers, two governors and forty-four MNAs and MPAs, obtained an order from the Supreme Court banning the National Awami Party on the recommendation of Akbar Bugti, and charged everyone with high treason to be tried by a specially constituted Hyderabad tribunal of handpicked judges. In January 1973, Bhutto ordered the army to suppress a rising insurgency in the province of Balochistan and dismissed the governments in Balochistan and the North-West Frontier Province once more. Following the alleged discovery of Iraqi arms in Islamabad in February 1973, Bhutto dissolved the Provincial Assembly of Balochistan. The operation, under General Tikka Khan, soon took shape in a five-year conflict with the Baloch separatists. The sporadic fighting between the insurgency and the army started in 1973 with the largest confrontation taking place in September 1974. The Iranian military, fearing a spread of the greater Baloch resistance in Iran, also aided the Pakistani military. Among Iran’s contribution were 30 Huey cobra attack helicopters and $200 million in aid.
Prime Minister of Pakistan
After the promulgation of the 1973 Constitution, the elections for the President, Prime Minister, Chairman of Senate, Speaker and Deputy Speaker of the National Assembly were to be undertaken. The 1973 Constitution had adopted a federal parliamentary system for the country in which the President was only a figurehead and the real power lay with the Prime Minister. Z. A. Bhutto was sworn in as the Prime Minister of the country on August 14, 1973, after he had secured 108 votes in a house of 146 members. Fazal Ilahi Chaudhry was elected as the President under the new Constitution. During his period, six amendments were carried out in the 1973 Constitution. The First Amendment led to Pakistan’s recognition and diplomatic ties with Bangladesh. The Second Amendment in the constitution declared the Ahmadis as non-Muslims, and defined the term non-Muslim. The rights of the detained were limited under the Third Amendment while the powers and jurisdiction of the courts for providing relief to political opponents were curtailed under the Fourth Amendment. The Fifth Amendment passed on 15 September 1976, focused on curtailing the power and jurisdiction of the Judiciary. This amendment was highly criticised by lawyers and political leaders. The main provision of the Sixth Amendment extended the term of the Chief Justices of the Supreme Court and the High Courts beyond the age of retirement. This Amendment was made in the Constitution to favour the then Chief Justice of the Supreme Court who was supposed to be a friend of Bhutto.
The Bhutto Government carried out a number of reforms in the industrial sector. His reforms were twofold; nationalisation, and the improvement of workers’ rights. In the first phase, basic industries like steel, chemical and cement were nationalised. This was done in 1972. The next major step in nationalisation took place on 1 January 1974, when Bhutto nationalised all banks. The last step in the series was the most shocking; it was the nationalisation of all flour, rice and cotton mills throughout the country. This nationalisation process was not as successful as Bhutto expected. Most of the nationalised units were small businesses that could not be described as industrial units, hence making no sense for the step that was taken. Consequently, a considerable number of small businessmen and traders were ruined, displaced or rendered unemployed. In the concluding analysis, nationalisation caused colossal loss not only to the national treasury but also to the people of Pakistan.
During his period as the Prime Minister, a number of land reforms were also introduced. The important land reforms included the reduction of land ceilings and introducing the security of tenancy to tenant farmers. The land ceiling was fixed to 150 acres (0.61 km2) of irrigated land and 300 acres (1.2 km2) of non-irrigated land. Another step that Bhutto took was to democratise Pakistan’s Civil Service.
Bhutto introduced socialist economic reforms while working to prevent any further division of the country. Absolute poverty was sharply reduced, with the percentage of the population estimated to be living in absolute poverty falling from 46.50% by the end of military rule to 30.78% by 1979–80. The land reform programme provided increased support to landless tenants, and development spending was substantially, particularly on health and education, in both rural and urban areas, and provided ‘material support’ to rural wage workers, landless peasants, and urban wage workers.
Popular unrest and military coup
Bhutto began facing considerable criticism and increasing unpopularity as his term progressed. Initially targeting leader of the opposition Abdul Wali Khan and his opposition National Awami Party (NAP). Despite the ideological similarity of the two parties the clash of egos both inside and outside the National Assembly became increasingly fierce and started with the Federal governments decision to oust the NAP provincial government in Balochistan for alleged secessionist activities and culminating in the banning of the party and arrest of much of its leadership after the death of Hayat Khan Sherpao, a close lieutenant of Bhutto, in a bomb blast in the frontier town of Peshawar.
Dissidence also increased within the PPP and the murder of dissident leader Ahmed Raza Kasuri‘s father led to public outrage and intra-party hostility as Bhutto was accused of masterminding the crime. Powerful PPP leaders such as Ghulam Mustafa Khar openly condemned Bhutto and called for protests against his regime. The political crisis in the NWFP and Balochistan intensified as civil liberties remained suspended and an estimated 100,000 troops deployed there were accused of human rights abuses and killing large numbers of civilians.
On 8 January 1977 many opposition political parties grouped to form the Pakistan National Alliance (PNA). Bhutto called fresh elections and the PNA participated in those elections with full force and managed to contest the elections jointly even though they had grave differences in their opinions and views. The PNA faced defeat but did not accept the results, accusing their opponents of rigging the election. They first claimed rigging on 14 seats and finally on 40 seats in the national assembly and boycotted provisional elections turn out in national elections was of highest degree. Provincial elections were held amidst low voter turnout and an opposition boycott, violent PNA declare the newly-elected Bhutto government as illegitimate. Muslim leaders such as Maulana Maududi called for the overthrow of Bhutto’s regime. Intensifying political and civil disorder prompted Bhutto to hold talks with PNA leaders, which culminated in an agreement for the dissolution of the assemblies and fresh elections under a form of government of national unity. However on 5 July 1977 Bhutto and members of his cabinet were arrested by troops under the order of General Zia. It is generally believed that the coup took place on the pretext of unrest despite Bhutto having reached an agreement with the opposition.
General Zia announced that martial law had been imposed, the constitution suspended and all assemblies dissolved and promised elections within ninety days. Zia also ordered the arrest of senior PPP and PNA leaders but promised elections in October. Bhutto was released on 29 July and was received by a large crowd of supporters in his hometown of Larkana. He immediately began touring across Pakistan, delivering speeches to very large crowds and planning his political comeback. Bhutto was arrested again on 3 September before being released on bail on 13 September. Fearing yet another arrest, Bhutto named his wife, Nusrat, president of the Pakistan People’s Party. Bhutto was imprisoned on 16 September and a large number of PPP leaders and activists arrested and disqualified from contesting in elections.
Trial of the Prime Minister
Bhutto’s trial began on 24 October on charges of "conspiracy to murder” of Ahmed Raza Kasuri. On 5 July 1977 the military, led by General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq, staged a coup. Zia relieved prime minister Bhutto of power, holding him in detention for a month. Zia pledged that new elections would be held in 90 days. He kept postponing the elections and publicly retorted during successive press conferences that if the elections were held in the presence of Bhutto his party would not return to power again.
Upon his release, Bhutto travelled the country amid adulatory crowds of PPP supporters. He used to take the train travelling from the south to the north and on the way, would address public meetings at different stations. Several of these trains were late, some by days, in reaching their respective destinations and as a result Bhutto was banned from travelling by train. The last visit he made to the city of Multan in the province of Punjab marked the turning point in Bhutto’s political career and ultimately, his life. In spite of the administration’s efforts to block the gathering, the crowd was so large that it became disorderly, providing an opportunity for the administration to declare that Bhutto had been taken into custody because the people were against him and it had become necessary to protect him from the masses for his own safety.
Re-arrest and trial
On 3 September the Army arrested Bhutto again on charges of authorising the murder of a political opponent in March 1974. A 35-year-old politician Ahmed Raza Kasuri tried to run as a PPP candidate in elections, despite having previously left the party. The Pakistan Peoples Party rebuffed him. Three years earlier, Kasuri and his family had been ambushed, leaving Kasuri’s father, Nawab Mohammad Ahmad Khan, dead. Kasuri claimed that he was the actual target, accusing Bhutto of being the mastermind. Kasuri later claimed that he had been the victim of 15 assassination attempts.
Bhutto was released 10 days after his arrest due to a judge, Justice KMA Samadani, finding the evidence "contradictory and incomplete.” Justice Samadani had to pay for this; he was immediately removed from the court and placed at the disposal of the law ministry. Three days later Zia arrested Bhutto again on the same charges, this time under "martial law.” When the PPP organised demonstrations among Bhutto’s supporters, Zia cancelled the upcoming elections.
Bhutto was arraigned before the High Court of Lahore instead of in a lower court, thus automatically depriving him of one level of appeal. The judge who had granted him bail was removed. Five new judges were appointed, headed by Chief Justice of Lahore High Court Maulvi Mushtaq Ali, who denied bail. The trial lasted five months, and Bhutto appeared in court in a dock specially built for the trial.
Proceedings began on 24 October 1977. Masood Mahmood, the director general of the Federal Security Force (since renamed the Federal Investigation Agency), testified against Bhutto. Mahmood had been arrested immediately after Zia’s coup and had been imprisoned for two months prior to taking the stand. In his testimony, he claimed Bhutto had ordered Kasuri’s assassination and that four members of the Federal Security Force had organised the ambush on Bhutto’s orders.
The four alleged assassins were arrested and later confessed. They were brought into court as "co-accused” but one of them recanted his testimony, declaring that it had been extracted from him under torture. The following day, the witness was not present in court; the prosecution claimed that he had suddenly "fallen ill”.
Bhutto’s defence challenged the prosecution with proof from an army logbook the prosecution had submitted. It showed that the jeep allegedly driven during the attack on Kasuri was not even in Lahore at the time. The prosecution had the logbook disregarded as "incorrect.” During the defence’s cross-examination of witnesses, the bench often interrupted questioning. The 706-page official transcript contained none of the objections or inconsistencies in the evidence pointed out by the defence. Former U.S. Attorney General Ramsey Clark, who attended the trial, wrote:
The prosecution’s case was based entirely on several witnesses who were detained until they confessed, who changed and expanded their confessions and testimony with each reiteration, who contradicted themselves and each other, who, except for Masood Mahmood… were relating what others said, whose testimony led to four different theories of what happened, absolutely uncorroborated by an eyewitness, direct evidence, or physical evidence.
When Bhutto began his testimony on 25 January 1978, Chief Justice Maulvi Mustaq closed the courtroom to all observers. Bhutto responded by refusing to say any more. Bhutto demanded a retrial, accusing the Chief Justice of bias, after Mustaq allegedly insulted Bhutto’s home province. The court refused his demand.
Death sentence and appeal
On 18 March 1978, Bhutto wasn’t declared guilty of murder but was sentenced to death. Bhutto did not seek an appeal. While he was transferred to a cell in Rawalpindi central jail, his family appealed on his behalf, and a hearing before the Supreme Court commenced in May. Bhutto was given one week to prepare. Bhutto issued a thorough rejoinder to the charges, although Zia blocked its publication. Chief Justice S. Anwarul Haq adjourned the court until the end of July 1978, supposedly because five of the nine appeals court judges were willing to overrule the Lahore verdict. One of the pro-Bhutto judges was due to retire in July.
Chief Justice S. Anwarul Haq presided over the trial, despite being close to Zia, even serving as Acting President when Zia was out of the country. Bhutto’s lawyers managed to secure Bhutto the right to conduct his own defence before the Supreme Court. On 18 December 1978, Bhutto made his appearance in public before a packed courtroom in Rawalpindi. By this time he had been on death row for 9 months and had gone without fresh water for the previous 25 days. He addressed the court for four days, speaking without notes.
The appeal was completed on 23 December 1978. On 6 February 1979, the Supreme Court issued a guilty verdict, a decision reached by a bare 4-to-3 majority. The Bhutto family had seven days in which to appeal. The court granted a stay of execution while it studied the petition. By 24 February 1979 when the next court hearing began, appeals for clemency arrived from many heads of state. Zia said that the appeals amounted to "trade union activity” among politicians.
On 24 March 1979 the Supreme Court dismissed the appeal. Zia upheld the death sentence. Bhutto was hanged at Central jail, Rawalpindi, on 4 April 1979, and is buried in Village Cemetery at Garhi Khuda Baksh.
Criticism and legacy
Zulfikar Ali Bhutto remains a controversial figure in Pakistan. While he was hailed for being a nationalist, Bhutto was roundly criticised for opportunism and intimidating his political opponents. He gave Pakistan its third constitution, oversaw Pakistan’s nuclear programme, held peace talks with neighbour India and was more of an Internationalist with a secular image. His socialist policies are blamed for slowing down Pakistan’s economic progress owing to poor productivity and high costs. Bhutto is also criticised for human rights abuses perpetrated by the army in Balochistan. Many in Pakistan’s military, notably the former president Gen. Pervez Musharaf condemn Bhutto for having caused the crisis that led to the Bangladesh Liberation War. In spite of all the criticism—and subsequent media trials—Bhutto still remains the most popular leader of the country. Bhutto’s action against the insurgency in Balochistan is blamed for causing widespread civil dissent and calls for secession. Zulfikar Ali Bhutto Institute of Science and Technology is named for him; his daughter was chairman of its board of trustees. His family remained active in politics, with first his wife and then his daughter becoming leader of the PPP political party. His daughter, Benazir Bhutto, was twice prime minister of Pakistan, and was assassinated on 27 December 2007, while campaigning for 2008 elections.
- Peace-Keeping by the United Nations, Pakistan Publishing House, Karachi, 1967
- Political Situation in Pakistan, Veshasher Prakashan, New Delhi, 1968
- The Myth of Independence, Oxford University Press, Karachi and Lahore, 1969
- The Great Tragedy, Pakistan People’s Party, Karachi, 1971
- Marching Towards Democracy, (collections of speeches), 1972
- Politics of the People (speeches, statements and articles), 1948–1971
- The Third World: New Directions, Quartet Books, London, 1977
- My Pakistan, Biswin Sadi Publications, New Delhi, 1979
- If I am Assassinated, Vikas, New Delhi, 1979
- My Execution, Musawaat Weekly International, London, 1980
- New Directions, Narmara Publishers, London, 1980
Books on Bhutto
- Ali, Tariq (2006). Leopard and the Fox.
- Burki, S. J. (1980). Pakistan Under Bhutto.
- Wolpert, Stanley (1993). Zulfi Bhutto of Pakistan.
- Fallaci, Oriana (1988). Interview with History. ISBN 0395252237.
- Mody, Piloo. Zulfi My friend.
- The Mirage of Power, Dr Mubashir Hasan
- Bhutto, Trial and Execution, Victoria Schofield
- The Great Tragedy, Jang Publishers Press (1993)
- Raza, Syed Mehdi (2003). Zulfi My Inspiration.
- Nasr, Vali (2006). The Shia Revival: How Conflicts Within Islam Will Shape the Future.
- Mera Lahoo, Mr. Farrukh Sohail Goindi
- Bhutto Key Akhri 323 Din (Bhutto’s Last 323 Days), Colonel Rafi
- Movement for Restoration of Democracy
- Benazir Bhutto
- Murtaza Bhutto
- Ghinwa Bhutto
- Hyderabad tribunal
- Constitution of Pakistan
- Asghar Khan
- Mufti Mahmud
- Malik Anwer Ali Noon
- Sherbaz Mazari
- Mausoleum of Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto
- ^ Blood, Peter Blood (editor) (1994). "Pakistan – ZIA UL-HAQ”. Pakistan: A Country Study. Washington: GPO for the Library of Congress. http://countrystudies.us/pakistan/21.htm. Retrieved 28 December 2007. "… hanging … Bhutto for complicity in the murder of a political opponent…”
- ^"Deposed Pakistani PM is executed”. BBC On This Day (British Broadcasting Corporation). 4 April 1979. http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/april/4/newsid_2459000/2459507.stm. Retrieved 28 December 2007. "sentenced to death for the murder of a political opponent”
- ^"Zulfikar Ali Bhutto”. Britannica Concise. Encyclopædia Britannica. 2007. http://concise.britannica.com/ebc/article-9357207/Zulfikar-Ali-Bhutto. Retrieved 28 December 2007. "Gen. Zia-ul-Haq seized power and had Bhutto imprisoned and later executed.”
- ^ Schofield, Victoria (19 February 2000). "Bhutto: the final act”. Dawn (Karachi). http://www.victoriaschofield.com/Excerpt21.htm. Retrieved 29 December 2007. "flimsy murder charge”
- ^Benazir Bhutto: Pakistani prime minister and activist By Mary Englar
- ^ Encyclopedia Britannica 2006. He is hailed by many to have been the greatest leader that Pakistan has ever had – a true people’s politician, hero, leader – selfless and brave till the very end.. "Bhutto, Zulfikar Ali” (PHP). http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9079077/Zulfikar-Ali-Bhutto. Retrieved 7 November 2006.
- ^Gandhi, Rajmohan (1991). Patel: A Life. India: Navajivan. pp. 291–93. ASIN B0006EYQ0A.
- ^Interview with Vali Nasr
- ^ ab US Country Studies. "Ayub Khan” (PHP). http://countrystudies.us/pakistan/18.htm. Retrieved 7 November 2006.
- ^ abcde US Country Studies. "Yahya Khan and Bangladesh” (PHP). http://countrystudies.us/pakistan/19.htm. Retrieved 7 November 2006.
- ^ Blood, Archer, Transcript of Selective Genocide Telex, Department of State, United States
- ^ abcdefghijk US Country Studies. "Zulfikar Ali Bhutto” (PHP). http://countrystudies.us/pakistan/20.htm. Retrieved 7 November 2006.
- ^ abFrank, Katherine (2002). Indira: The Life of Indira Nehru Gandhi. USA: Houghton Mifflin. pp. 346. ISBN0-395-73097-X.
- ^Frank, Katherine (2002). Indira: The Life of Indira Nehru Gandhi. USA: Houghton Mifflin. pp. 347. ISBN0-395-73097-X.
- ^ Story of Pakistan. "Ouster of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto” (PHP). http://www.storyofpakistan.com/articletext.asp?artid=A072. Retrieved 7 November 2006.
- ^ In the summer of 1976, General Zia, who had superseded seven senior lieutenant-generals, told Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto: "Sir I am so grateful to you for appointing me Chief of Army Staff. Not only myself, but may future generations will be eternally grateful to you for singling me out for such a great honor, and this is a favour which I can never forget.” The Herald, July 1992
- ^ abcdefg Rahman, S.I., Professor Inam-ur (April 04/2007). "Prime minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto was the architect and father of Pakistan’s Nuclear Weapons Production Programme” (html). Professor Inam-ur-Rehman, scientist emeritus and professor of Nuclear Engineering at the Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences (PIEAS) and Pakistan Military Consortium. Pakistan Military Consortium. http://www.pakdef.info/nuclear&missile/memorial_munirahmed.html. Retrieved 2011.
- ^ Shabbir, Usman (May 2004). "Remembering Unsung Heroes: Munir Ahmed Khan”. Defence Journal. http://www.pakdef.info/nuclear&missile/munirahmad1.html. Retrieved 4 April 2010.
- ^How safe are Pakistan’s nuclear assets, By Shahid R. Siddiqi, Dawn newspaper, Sunday, 14 Feb, 2010
- ^Maulana Kausar NiaziThe Last Days of Premier Bhutto p.61
- ^ BBC, News page (17 January 2005). "Pakistan risks new battlefront”. BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/south_asia/4182151.stm. Retrieved 8 April 2006.
- ^Waiting for the Worst: Baluchistan, 2006
- ^"Constitution (Second Amendment) Act, 1974”. http://www.pakistani.org/pakistan/constitution/amendments/2amendment.html. Retrieved 30 May 2010.
- ^ Trade liberalization and regional disparity in Pakistan by Muhammad Shoaib Butt and Jayatilleke S. Bandara
- ^ ab Story of Pakistan. "Ouster of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto” (PHP). http://www.storyofpakistan.com/articletext.asp?artid=A143. Retrieved 7 November 2006.
- ^Militarism and the State Pakistan: Military Intervention by Eqbal Ahmed (Le Monde Diplomatique, October 1977)
- ^ Mazari, Sherbaz(2000) A Journey into disillusionment
- ^Frank, Katherine (2002). Indira: The Life of Indira Nehru Gandhi. USA: Houghton Mifflin. pp. 438. ISBN0-395-73097-X.
- ^Zulfikar Ali Bhutto Biography and Analysis
- ^"Zulfikar Ali Bhutto News & Articles on washingtonpost.com”. http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/related/topic/Zulfikar+Ali+Bhutto?tid=informline. [dead link]
- ^Zulifikar Ali Bhutto’s Memorial Page at Find A Grave. Retrieved on 16 December 2008.
- ^ Taheri, Amir (18 October 2006). "In the Line of Fire: A Memoir” (PHP). http://www.aawsat.com/english/news.asp?section=8&id=6746. Retrieved 7 November 2006.
- ^Frank, Katherine (2002). Indira: The Life of Indira Nehru Gandhi. USA: Houghton Mifflin. pp. 438 He also enacted tax relief for the country’s poorest agricultural workers and placed ceilings on land ownership. During his tenure there was a massive transfer of resources towards the dominant rural economy by setting higher prices for agricultural products. . ISBN0-395-73097-X.
- ^"Shaheed Zulfikar Ali Bhutto Institute of Science and Technology (SZABIST)”. http://www.szabist.edu.pk/about.htm. Retrieved 29 December 2007. "The Shaheed Zulfikar Ali Bhutto Institute of Science and Technology (SZABIST) is a fully Chartered Institute established through a Legislative Act of the Pakistan Assembly (Sindh Act No. XI of 1995) and is approved and recognized by the Higher Education Commission (HEC), Pakistan, as a degree granting institution.”
- Wikipedia : www.wikipedia.org
ذوالفقار علی بھٹو
|ذوالفقار علی بھٹو
14 اگست 1973 – 5 جولائی 1977
|صدر||فضل الٰہی چوہدری|
|جانشین||محمد ضیاء الحق|
20 دسمبر 1971 – 13 اگست 1973
|جانشین||فضل الٰہی چوہدری|
20 دسمبر 1971 – 28 مارچ 1977
|صدر||فضل الٰہی چوہدری|
15 جون 1963 – 12 ستمبر 1966
|پیشرو||محمد علی بوگرہ|
|جانشین||سید شریف الدین پیرزادہ|
|پیدائش||5 جنوری 1928(1928-01-05)
لاڑکانہ ، برطانوی ہند (اب پاکستان)
|وفات||4 اپریل 1979 (عمر 51 سال)
راولپنڈی ، پاکستان
|جائے دفن||گڑھی خدا بخش|
|سیاسی جماعت||پاکستان پیپلز پارٹی|
|مادر علمی||University of Southern California
University of California, Berkeley
Christ Church, Oxford
پاکستان کے پہلے منتخب وزیر اعظم لاڑکانہ سندھ میں پیدا ہوئے۔ انکے والد سر شاہ نواز بھٹو مشیر اعلی حکومت بمبئی اور جونا گڑھ کی مسلم ریاست میں دیوان تھے۔ ذوالفقار علی بھٹو نے 1950 میں برکلے یونیورسٹی کیلیفورنیا سے سیاسیات میں گریجویشن کی۔ 1952ء میں آکسفورڈ یونیورسٹی سے اصول قانون میں ماسٹر کی ڈگری لی۔ اسی سال مڈل ٹمپل لندن سے بیرسٹری کا امتحان پاس کیا ۔ پہلے ایشیائی تھے جنھیں انگلستان کی ایک یونیورسٹی ’’ساؤ تھمپئین‘‘ میں بین الاقوامی قانون کا استاد مقرر کیا گیا۔ کچھ عرصہ مسلم لاء کالج کراچی میں دستوری قانون کے لیکچرر رہے۔ 1953ء میں سندھ ہائی کورٹ میں وکالت شروع کی
1958ء تا 1960ء صدر ایوب خان کی کابینہ میں وزیر تجارت ، 1960ء تا 1962ء وزیر اقلیتی امور ، قومی تعمیر نو اور اطلاعات ، 1962ء تا 1965ء وزیر صنعت و قدرتی وسائل اور امور کشمیر جون 1963ء تا جون 1966ء وزیر خارجہ رہے۔ دسمبر 1967ء میں پاکستان پیپلز پارٹی کی بنیاد رکھی۔ 1970ء کے عام انتخابات میں پیپلز پارٹی نے مغربی پاکستان میں نمایاں کامیابی حاصل کی ۔دسمبر 1971ء میں جنرل یحیٰی خان نے پاکستان کی عنان حکومت مسٹر بھٹو کو سونپ دی ۔ وہ دسمبر 1971ء تا 13 اگست 1973 صدر مملکت کے عہدے پر فائز رہے۔ 14 اگست 1973ء کو نئے آئین کے تحت وزیراعظم کا حلف اٹھایا۔
1977ء کے عام انتخابات میں دھاندلیوں کے سبب ملک میں خانہ جنگی کی سی کیفیت پیدا ہو گئی۔ 5 جولائی 1977 کو جنرل محمد ضیا الحق نے مارشل لاء نافذ کر دیا۔ ستمبر 1977ء میں مسٹر بھٹو نواب محمد احمد خاں کے قتل کے الزام میں گرفتار کر لیے گئے۔ 18 مارچ 1978ء کو ہائی کورٹ نے انھیں سزائے موت کا حکم سنایا۔ 6 فروری 1979ء کو سپریم کورٹ نے ہائی کورٹ کے فیصلے کی توثیق کر دی۔ 4 اپریل کو انھیں راولپنڈی جیل میں پھانسی پر لٹکا دیا گیا۔
آپ کے بعد محمد خان جونیجو وزیراعظم بنے۔
- ^ Khaled Ahmed (May 23, 1998). ""The secular Mussalman”". The Indian Express. http://www.indianexpress.com/res/web/pIe/ie/daily/19980523/14350814.html. Retrieved 2007-09-19.
- ^ Cite error: Invalid
<ref>tag; no text was provided for refs named
- ^ Vali Nasr The Shia Revival: How Conflicts Within Islam Will Shape the Future (W. W. Norton, 2006), pp. 88-90 ISBN 0-3933-2968-2
محمد علی بوگرہ
|وزیر خارجہ پاکستان
1963 – 1966
شریف الدین پیرزادہ
1971 – 1973
فضل الٰہی چوہدری
|وزیر خارجہ پاکستان
1971 – 1977
|وزیر دفاع پاکستان
1971 – 1977
محمد ضیاء الحق
سردار عبدالرشید خان
|وزیر داخلہ پاکستان
1971 – 1972
عبد القیوم خان
|سپیکر قومی اسمبلی
1972 – 1973
فضل الٰہی چوہدری
1973 – 1977
محمد خان جونیجو
عبد القیوم خان
|وزیر داخلہ پاکستان
انعام الحق خان
|سیاسی جماعتوں کے عہدے|
نیا عہدہ تخلیق ہوا
|چئیرمین پاکستان پیپلز پارٹی
1967 – 1979