Urdu | اردو

Urdu (اردو)

Urdu is an Official Language of Pakistan , some times it called Indo-Aryan language . In past it was defined as an Army of Languages inclusive Arabic, Persian , Turkish with about 104 million speakers, including those who speak it as a second language. It is the national language of Pakistan and is closely related to Hindi, though a lot of Urdu vocabulary comes from Persian and Arabic, which is not the case for Hindi.

Urdu is also spoken in Afghanistan, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Botswana, Fiji, Germany, Guyana, India, Malawi, Mauritius, Nepal, Norway, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, Thailand, the UAE, the UK and Zambia.

Urdu has been written with a version of the Perso-Arabic script since the 12th century and is normally written in Nastaliq style. The word Urdu is Turkish for ‘foreign’ or ‘horde’.

Urdu abjad

Urdu abjad

The letter nūn-e ğunnah appears only at the ends of words.

Urdu numerals

Urdu Numerals

Sample text in Urdu

Sample text in Urdu

Transliteration

Tamām insān āzād ôr ḥuqūq-o ʿizzat ke ėʿtibār se barābar peidā hū’e heiṅ. Inheṅ żamīr ôr ʿaql vadīʿat hū’ī he. Isli’e inheṅ ek dūsre ke sāth bhā’ī čāre kā sulūk karnā čāhi’e.

Links

Information about Urdu
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Urdu_language

http://www.urdusky.com

http://www.theurdulanguage.com
http://www.bbc.co.uk/voices/multilingual/urdu.shtml

Online Urdu lessons
http://www.ukindia.com/zurdu1.htm
http://www.bbc.co.uk/languages/other/guide/urdu/

Urdu transliterator
http://syedgakbar.co.cc/products/web/

Online Urdu Dictionaries

http://www.urdusky.com
http://www.urduword.com
http://dsal.uchicago.edu/dictionaries/platts/
http://www.urduseek.com

Free Urdu fonts
http://meltingpot.fortunecity.com/mlk/470/download.htm

National Language Authority of Pakistan
http://www.nla.gov.pk

Online Urdu radio
http://www.bbc.co.uk/urdu/

Online Urdu news

http://www.urdusky.com
http://www.urdutimes.com
http://www.myurdunews.com
http://www.sahilonline.org
http://www.bbc.co.uk/urdu/

UrduPoint – information in Urdu about a wide variety of topics
http://www.urdupoint.com

Online Urdu literature
http://www.urdustan.com/

Urdu Poetry
http://www.urdupoetry.com
http://www.hallagulla.com
http://www.urdupoet.net

Urdu Music
http://www.allghazals.com

Ibtada – an Urdu portal (in Urdu)
http://www.ibtada.com

اردو

اُردو، ہند-یورپی لسانی خاندان کے ہند-ایرانی شاخ کی ایک ہند-آریائی زبان ہے. اِس کی اِرتقاء جنوبی ایشیاء میں سلطنتِ دہلی اور مغلیہ سلطنت کے دوران ہند زبانوں پر فارسی، عربی اور تُرکی کی اثر سے ہوئی.

اُردو (بولنے والوں کی تعداد کے لحاظ سے) دُنیا کی تمام زبانوں میں بیسویں نمبر پر ہے. یہ پاکستان کی قومی زبان جبکہ بھارت کی 23 سرکاری زبانوں میں سے ایک ہے.

اُردو کا بعض اوقات ہندی کے ساتھ موازنہ کیا جاتا ہے. اُردو اور ہندی میں بُنیادی فرق یہ ہے کہ اُردو نستعلیق رسم الخط میں لکھی جاتی ہے اور عربی و فارسی الفاظ استعمال کرتی ہے. جبکہ ہندی دیوناگری رسم الخط میں لکھی جاتی ہے اور سنسکرت الفاظ زیادہ استعمال کرتی ہے. کچھ ماہرینِ لسانیات اُردو اور ہندی کو ایک ہی زبان کی دو معیاری صورتیں گردانتے ہیں. تاہم، دوسرے اِن کو معاش اللسانی تفرّقات کی بنیاد پر الگ سمجھتے ہیں.

بولنے والے اور جُغرافیائی پھیلاؤ

معیاری اُردو (کھڑی بولی) کے اصل بولنے والے افراد کی تعداد 60 سے 80 ملین ہے. ایس.آئی.ایل نژادیہ کے 1999ء کی شماریات کے مطابق اُردو اور ہندی دُنیا میں پانچویں سب سے زیادہ بولی جانی والی زبان ہے. لینگویج ٹوڈے میں جارج ویبر کے مقالے: دُنیا کی دس بڑی زبانیں، میں اُردو اور ہندی چینی زبانوں، انگریزی اور ہسپانوی زبان کے بعد دُنیا میں سب سے زیادہ بولے جانی والی چوتھی زبان ہے۔ اِسے دُنیا کی کُل آباد کا 4.7 فیصد افراد بولتے ہیں۔

اُردو کی ہندی کے ساتھ یکسانیت کی وجہ سے، دونوں زبانوں کے بولنے والے ایک دوسرے کو عموماً سمجھ سکتے ہیں. درحقیقت، ماہرینِ لسانیات اِن دونوں زبانوں کو ایک ہی زبان کے حصّے سمجھتے ہیں۔ تاہم، یہ معاشی و سیاسی لحاظ سے ایک دوسرے سے مختلف ہیں. لوگ جو اپنے آپ کو اُردو کو اپنی مادری زبان سمجھتے ہیں وہ ہندی کو اپنی مادری زبان تسلیم نہیں کرتے، اور اِسی طرح اِس کے برعکس۔

اُردو کو پاکستان کے تمام صوبوں میں سرکاری زبان کی حیثیت حاصل ہے۔ یہ مدرسوں میں اعلٰی ثانوی جماعتوں تک لازمی مضمون کی طور پر پڑھائی جاتی ہے۔ اِس نے کروڑوں اُردو بولنے والے پیدا کردیئے ہیں جن کی زبان پنجابی، پشتو، سندھی، بلوچی، کشمیری، براہوی، چترالی وغیرہ میں سے کوئی ایک ہوتی ہے. اُردو پاکستان کی مُشترکہ زبان ہے اور یہ علاقائی زبانوں سے کئی الفاظ ضم کررہی ہے۔ اُردو کا یہ لہجہ اب پاکستانی اُردو کہلاتی ہے. یہ اَمر زبان کے بارے میں رائے تبدیل کررہی ہے جیسے اُردو بولنے والا وہ ہے جو اُردو بولتا ہے گو کہ اُس کی مادری زبان کوئی اَور زبان ہی کیوں نہ ہو. علاقائی زبانیں بھی اُردو کے الفاظ سے اثر پارہی ہیں. پاکستان میں کروڑوں افراد ایسے ہیں جن کی مادری زبان کوئی اَور ہے لیکن وہ اُردو کو بولتے اور سمجھ سکتے ہیں. پانچ ملین افغان مہاجرین، جنہوں نے پاکستان میں پچیس برس گزارے، میں سے زیادہ تر اُردو روانی سے بول سکتے ہیں. وہ تمام اُردو بولنے والے کہلائیں گے۔ پاکستان میں اُردو اخباروں کی ایک بڑی تعداد چھپتی ہے جن میں روزنامۂ جنگ، نوائے وقت اور ملّت شامل ہیں۔

بھارت میں، اُردو اُن جگہوں میں بولی اور استعمال کی جاتی ہے جہاں مسلمان اقلیتی آباد ہیں یا وہ شہر جو ماضی میں مسلمان حاکمین کے مرکز رہے ہیں۔ اِن میں اُتر پردیش کے حصے (خصوصاً لکھنؤ)، دہلی، بھوپال، حیدرآباد، بنگلور، کولکتہ، میسور، پاٹنا، اجمیر اور احمد آباد شامل ہیں. کچھ بھارتی مدرسے اُردو کو پہلی زبان کے طور پر پڑھاتے ہیں، اُن کا اپنا خاکۂ نصاب اور طریقۂ امتحانات ہیں۔ بھارتی دینی مدرسے عربی اور اُردو میں تعلیم دیتے ہیں. بھارت میں اُردو اخباروں کی تعداد 29 سے زیادہ ہے۔

جنوبی ایشیاء سے باہر اُردو زبان خلجِ فارس اور سعودی عرب میں جنوبی ایشیائی مزدور مہاجر بولتے ہیں۔ یہ زبان برطانیہ، امریکہ، کینیڈا، جرمنی، ناروے اور آسٹریلیاء میں مقیم جنوبی ایشیائی مہاجرین بولتے ہیں۔

ممالک جہاں اُردو اصل بولنے والے بڑی تعداد میں آباد ہیں:

  • پاکستان (10,800,000 [1993], 7%)
  • بھارت (51,536,111 [2001], 5.1%)
  • مملکتِ متحدہ (747,285 [2001], 1.3%)
  • بنگلہ دیش (650,000, 0.4%)
  • متحدہ عرب امارات (600,000, 13%)
  • سعودی عرب (382,000, 1.5%)
  • نیپال (375,000, 1.3%)
  • ریاست ہائے متحدہ امریکہ (350,000, 0.1%)
  • افغانستان (320,000, 8%)
  • جنوبی افریقہ (170,000 جنوب ایشیائی مسلمان, جن میں سے کچھ اُردو بول سکتے ہیں)
  • کینیڈا (156,415 [2006], 0.5%)
  • عمان (90,000, 2.8%)
  • بحرین (80,000, 11.3%)
  • ماریشس (74,000, 5.6%)
  • قطر (70,000, 8%)
  • جرمنی (40,000)
  • ناروے (29,100)
  • فرانس (20,000)
  • سپین (18,000 [2004])
  • سویڈن (10,000 [2001])
  • کُل عالمی: 60,503,578

درج بالا فہرست سے پتہ چلتا ہے کہ اصل اُردو بولنے والوں کی زیادہ تعداد جنوبی ایشاء کی بجائے چھوٹے عرب ریاستوں (متحدہ عرب امارات، بحرین) میں ہے، جہاں اُن کی تعداد وہاں کی کل آبادی کا 10 فیصد سے زیادہ ہے۔ اِس کی وجہ وہاں پر پاکستان اور بھارتی تارکینِ وطن کی ایک بڑی تعداد ہے۔

دفتری حیثیت

اُردو پاکستان کی قومی زبان ہے اور یہ پورے ملک میں بولی اور سمجھی جاتی ہے. یہ تعلیم، اَدب، دفتر، عدالت، وسیط اور دینی اِداروں میں مستعمل ہے. یہ ملک کی سماجی و ثقافتی میراث کا خزانہ ہے.

اُردو بھارت کی سرکاری زبانوں میں سے ایک ہے. یہ بھارتی ریاستوں آندھرا پردیش، بہار، جموں و کشمیر، اُتر پردیش اور دارالخلافہ دہلی.

دیگر متعلقہ صفحات

بیرونی روابط

 

 

بشکریہ وکیپیڈیا

 

Urdu

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This article is about the language. For other uses, see Urdu (disambiguation).
Urdu
اردو
Urdu in Persian-Arabic script (Nasta`liq style) URDUARAB.PNG
Pronunciation [ˈʊrduː]
Spoken in Pakistan, India. Also in various countries due to immigration, Afghanistan, Australia, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Botswana, Burma, Canada, Fiji, Germany, Guyana, Holland, Malawi, Mauritius, Nepal, Norway, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, Suriname, Thailand, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, United States, Zambia [1]
Region South Asia
Total speakers ~65 million (estimated, see Sec 12)
Ranking 20th (native speakers)[2]
Language family Indo-European 

Writing system Urdu alphabet (Nastaʿlīq script), see other less-used writing systems below
Official status
Official language in Pakistan
India (in 5 states)
Regulated by National Language Authority, (Pakistan); 

National Council for Promotion of Urdu language, (India)

Language codes
ISO 639-1 ur
ISO 639-2 urd
ISO 639-3 urd
Linguasphere
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This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters.

Urdu (Urdu: اردو, IPA: [ˈʊrduː] ( listen)) is a register of the Hindustani language identified with Muslims. It is the national language and one of the two official languages of Pakistan (the other being English), and one of 22 scheduled languages of India, as an official language of five Indian states. Based on the Hindi dialect of Delhi, its vocabulary developed under Persian, Arabic and Turkic influence over the course of almost 900 years.[4] Urdu was mainly developed in Uttar Pradesh in the Indian Subcontinent, but began taking shape during the Delhi Sultanate as well as Mughal Empire (1526–1858) in South Asia. It is the means of communication between the people from various provinces and regions of Pakistan.[5] Urdu is mutually intelligible with the younger register of Hindustani, which is called simply “Hindi“.

The original language of the Mughals was Chagatai, a Turkic language, but after their arrival in South Asia, they came to adopt Persian. Gradually, the need to communicate with local inhabitants led to a composition of Sanskrit-derived languages, written in the Perso-Arabic script and with literary conventions and specialised vocabulary being retained from Persian, Arabic and Turkic; the new standard was eventually given its own name of Urdu.[6]

Urdu is often contrasted with Hindi. The main differences between the two are that Standard Urdu is conventionally written in Nastaliq calligraphy style of the Perso-Arabic script and relies heavily on Persian and Arabic as a source for technical and literary language,[7] whereas Standard Hindi is conventionally written in Devanāgarī and draws on Sanskrit.[8] However, both have large numbers of Persian, Arabic, and Sanskrit words, and most linguists consider them to be two standardized forms of the same language,[9][10] consider the differences to be sociolinguistic,[11] though a few classify them separately.[12] Mutual intelligibility decreases in literary and specialized contexts which rely on educated vocabulary. Because of religious nationalism since the partition of British India and continued communal tensions, native speakers of both Hindi and Urdu frequently assert them to be completely distinct languages, despite the fact that they generally cannot tell the colloquial languages apart.

History

Urdu arose in the contact situation which developed from the Muslim invasions of the Indian subcontinent by Persian and Turkic dynasties from the 11th century onwards,[13] first as Sultan Mahmud of the Ghaznavid empire conquered Punjab in the early 11th century, then when the Ghurids invaded northern India in the 12th century, and most decisively with the establishment of the Delhi Sultanate.

The official language of the Ghurids, Delhi Sultanate, the Mughal Empire, and their successor states, as well as the cultured language of poetry and literature, was Persian, while the language of religion was Arabic. Most of the Sultans and nobility in the Sultanate period were Turks from Central Asia who spoke Turkic as their mother tongue. The Mughals were also Chagatai, but later adopted Persian. Muzaffar Alam asserts that Persian became the lingua franca of the empire under Akbar for various political and social factors due to its non-sectarian and fluid nature.[14] However, the armies, merchants, preachers, Sufis, and later the court, also incorporated the local people and the medieval Hindu literary language, Braj Bhasha. This new contact language soon incorporated other dialects, such as Haryanvi, Panjabi, and in the 17th century Khariboli, the dialect of the new capital at Delhi. By 1800, Khariboli had become dominant.[15]

The language went by several names over the years: Hindvi, “[language] of India”; Dehalvi “of Delhi”; Hindustani, “of Hindustan“; and Zaban-e-Urdu, “the language of the [army] camp”, or perhaps “of the market“, from which came the current name of Urdu. When Wali Mohammed Wali arrived in Delhi, he established Hindustani with a light smattering of Persian words, a register called Rekhta, for poetry; previously the language of poetry had been Persian. When the Delhi Sultenate expanded south to the Deccan Plateau, they carried their literary language with them, and it was influenced there by more southerly languages, producing the Dakhini dialect of Urdu. During this time Urdu, or Hindustani, was the language of both Hindus and Muslims. The communal nature of the language lasted until it replaced Persian as the official language in 1837 and was made coofficial along with English in the British Raj. This triggered a Hindu backlash in northwestern India, which argued that the language should be written in the native Devanagari script. This “Hindi” replaced traditional Urdu as the official register of Bihar in 1881, establishing a sectarian divide of “Urdu” for Muslims and “Hindi” for Hindus, a divide that was formalized with the division of India and Pakistan after independence from the British, though there are Hindu poets who continue to write in Urdu to this day.

Although there have been attempts to purge Urdu and Hindi, respectively, of their Sanskrit and Persian words, and new vocabulary draws primarily from Persian and Arabic for Urdu and Sanskrit for Hindi, this has primarily affected academic and literary vocabulary, and both national standards remain heavily influenced by both Persian and Sanskrit.[16] English has exerted a heavy influence on both as a coofficial language.

Speakers and geographic distribution

 

The phrase Zaban-e Urdu-e Mualla (“The language of the exalted camp”) written in Nastaʿlīq script.

There are between 60 and 70 million self-identified native speakers of Urdu: There were 52 million in India per the 2001 census, some 6% of the population;[17] 12 million in Pakistan in 2008, or 14%;[18] and several hundred thousand apiece in the United Kingdom, Saudi Arabia, United States, and Bangladesh, where it is called “Bihari”.[1] However, a knowledge of Urdu allows one to speak with far more people than that, as Hindi-Urdu is the fourth most commonly spoken language in the world, after Mandarin, English, and Spanish.[2][19]

Due to interaction with other languages, Urdu has become localized wherever it is spoken, including in Pakistan itself. Urdu in Pakistan has undergone changes and has lately incorporated and borrowed many words from Pakistani languages like Pashto, Punjabi and Sindhi, thus allowing speakers of the language in Pakistan to distinguish themselves more easily and giving the language a decidedly Pakistani Flavour. Similarly, the Urdu spoken in India can also be distinguished into many dialects like Dakhni (Deccan) of South India, and Khariboli of the Punjab region since recent times. Because of Urdu’s similarity to Hindi, speakers of the two languages can usually understand one another at a basic level if both sides refrain from using specialized vocabulary. Some linguists count them as being part of the same language and contend that they are considered as two different languages for socio-political reasons.[20] In Pakistan Urdu is mostly learned as a second or a third language as nearly 93% of Pakistan’s population has a mother tongue other than Urdu. Despite this, Urdu was chosen as a token of unity and as a lingua franca so as not to give any native Pakistani language preference over the other. Urdu is therefore spoken and understood by the vast majority in some form or another, including a majority of urban dwellers in such cities as Karachi, Lahore, Rawalpindi, Islamabad, Multan, Faisalabad, Hyderabad, Peshawar, Quetta, Jhang and Sargodha. It is written, spoken and used in all Provinces/Territories of Pakistan despite the fact that the people from differing provinces may have different indigenous languages, as from the fact that it is the “base language” of the country. For this reason, it is also taught as a compulsory subject up to higher secondary school in both English and Urdu medium school systems. This has produced millions of Urdu speakers from people whose mother tongue is one of the State languages of Pakistan such as Punjabi, Pashto, Sindhi, Balochi, Potwari, Hindko, Pahari, Saraiki, and Brahui but they can read and write only Urdu. It is absorbing many words from the regional languages of Pakistan. This variation of Urdu is sometimes referred to as Pakistani Urdu. So while most of the population is conversant in Urdu, it is the mother tongue only of an estimated 7% of the population, mainly Muslim immigrants (known as Muhajir in Pakistan) from different parts of South Asia (India, Burma, Bangladesh etc.). The regional languages are also being influenced by Urdu vocabulary. There are millions of Pakistanis whose mother tongue is not Urdu, but since they have studied in Urdu medium schools, they can read and write Urdu along with their native language. Most of the nearly five million Afghan refugees of different ethnic origins (such as Pashtun, Tajik, Uzbek, Hazarvi, and Turkmen) who stayed in Pakistan for over twenty-five years have also become fluent in Urdu. With such a large number of people(s) speaking Urdu, the language has in recent years acquired a peculiar Pakistani flavour further distinguishing it from the Urdu spoken by native speakers and diversifying the language even further.

 

Autograph and a couplet of Last Mughal Emperor, Bahadur Shah II, dated 29th April 1844

A great number of newspapers are published in Urdu in Pakistan, including the Daily Jang, Nawa-i-Waqt, Millat, among many others (see List of newspapers in Pakistan#Urdu-language newspapers).

In India, Urdu is spoken in places where there are large Muslim minorities or cities which were bases for Muslim Empires in the past. These include parts of Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra (Marathwada), Karnataka and cities namely Lucknow, Delhi, Meerut, Saharanpur, Muzaffarnagar, Roorkee, Deoband, Moradabad, Bijnor, Najibabad, Rampur, Aligarh, Allahabad, Gorakhpur, Agra, Kanpur, Badaun, Bhopal, Hyderabad, Aurangabad, Bengaluru, Kolkata, Mysore, Patna, Gulbarga, Nanded, Bidar, Ajmer, and Ahmedabad.[21] Some Indian schools teach Urdu as a first language and have their own syllabus and exams. Indian madrasahs also teach Arabic as well as Urdu. India has more than 3,000 Urdu publications including 405 daily Urdu newspapers. Newspapers such as Sahara Urdu, Daily Salar, Hindustan Express, Daily Pasban, Siasat Daily, The Munsif Daily and Inqilab are published and distributed in Bengaluru, Mysore, Hyderabad, and Mumbai (see List of newspapers in India).

Outside South Asia, it is spoken by large numbers of migrant South Asian workers in the major urban centres of the Persian Gulf countries and Saudi Arabia. Urdu is also spoken by large numbers of immigrants and their children in the major urban centres of the United Kingdom, the United States, Canada, Germany, Norway, and Australia. Along with Arabic, Urdu is among the immigrant languages with most speakers in Catalonia.[22]

Official status

Urdu is the national and one of the two official languages (Qaumi Zabaan) of Pakistan, the other being English, and is spoken and understood throughout the country, while the state-by-state languages (languages spoken throughout various regions) are the provincial languages. It is used in education, literature, office and court business.[23] It holds in itself a repository of the cultural and social heritage of the country.[24] Although English is used in most elite circles, and Punjabi has a plurality of native speakers, Urdu is the lingua franca and national language in Pakistan.

Urdu is also one of the officially recognised languages in India and has official language status in the Indian states of Uttar Pradesh, Bihar,[25], Andhra Pradesh, Jarkhand, Jammu and Kashmir and the national capital, New Delhi.

In Jammu and Kashmir, section 145 of the Kashmir Constitution provides: “The official language of the State shall be Urdu but the English language shall unless the Legislature by law otherwise provides, continue to be used for all the official purposes of the State for which it was being used immediately before the commencement of the Constitution.” As of 2010, the English language continues to be used as an official language for more than 90% of official work in Kashmir.[26] There are ongoing efforts to make Kashmiri and Dogri, spoken as mother tongues by nearly 80% of the population of Indian-administered Kashmir, as official languages alongside English.

The importance of Urdu [27] in the Muslim world is visible in the Holy cities of Mecca and Medina in Saudi Arabia, where most informational signage is written in Arabic, English and Urdu, and sometimes in other languages.

Dialects

Urdu has four recognised dialects: Dakhni, Rekhta, and Modern Vernacular Urdu (based on the Khariboli dialect of the Delhi region). Dakhni (also known as Dakani, Deccani, Desia, Mirgan) is spoken in Deccan region of southern India. It is distinct by its mixture of vocabulary from Marathi and Telugu language, as well as some vocabulary from Arabic, Persian and Turkish that are not found in the standard dialect of Urdu. In terms of pronunciation, the easiest way to recognize a native speaker is their pronunciation of the letter “qāf” (ﻕ) as “kh” (ﺥ). Dakhini is widely spoken in all parts of Maharashtra, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu. Urdu is read and written as in other parts of India. A number of daily newspapers and several monthly magazines in Urdu are published in these states.

Pakistani variant of the language spoken in Pakistan; it becomes increasingly divergent from the Indian dialects and forms of Urdu as it has absorbed many loan words, proverbs and phonetics from Pakistan’s indigenous languages such as Pashto, Panjabi and Sindhi. Furthermore, due to the region’s history, the Urdu dialect of Pakistan draws heavily from the Persian and Arabic languages, and the intonation and pronunciation are informal compared with corresponding Indian dialects.

In addition, Rekhta (or Rekhti), the language of Urdu poetry, is sometimes counted as a separate dialect, one famously used by several British Indian poets of high acclaim in the bulk of their work. These included Mirza Ghalib, Mir Taqi Mir and Muhammad Iqbal, the national poet-philosopher of Pakistan.

Phonology

Main article: Hindi-Urdu phonology

Grammar

Main article: Hindi-Urdu grammar

Vocabulary

Urdu has a vocabulary rich in words with Indic and Middle Eastern origins. The language’s Indic base has been enriched by borrowing from Persian and Arabic. There are also a small number of borrowings from Turkish, Portuguese, and more recently English. Many of the words of Arabic origin have been adopted through Persian and have different nuances of meaning and usage than they do in Arabic. Other words have exactly the same pronunciation, spelling, and meaning. For instance, the words “Sawaal” (lit. “Question”) and “Jawaab” (lit. “Answer”) are exactly the same in both Urdu and Arabic. An Urdu speaker needs only to visit Iran to discover that many words that are used daily in Urdu have different usages and meanings in Iranian Persian. This may be because the Persian found in Urdu is closer in a number of ways to Dari Persian.

Levels of formality

Urdu in its less formalised register has been referred to as a rekhta (ریختہ, [reːxt̪aː]), meaning “rough mixture”. The more formal register of Urdu is sometimes referred to as zabān-e-Urdu-e-mo’alla (زبان اردو معلہ [zəbaːn eː ʊrd̪uː eː moəllaː]), the “Language of the Exalted Camp” referring to the Imperial Bazar.[28]

The etymology of the word used in the Urdu language for the most part decides how polite or refined your speech is. For example, Urdu speakers would distinguish between پانی pānī and آب āb, both meaning “water” for example, or between آدمی ādmi and مرد mard, meaning “man”. The former in each set is used colloquially and has older Hindustani origins, while the latter is used formally and poetically, being of Persian origin.

If a word is of Persian or Arabic origin, the level of speech is considered to be more formal and grand. Similarly, if Persian or Arabic grammar constructs, such as the izafat, are used in Urdu, the level of speech is also considered more formal and grand. If a word is inherited from Sanskrit, the level of speech is considered more colloquial and personal.[29]

That distinction has likenesses with the division between words from a French or Old English origin while speaking English.

Politeness

Urdu is supposed to be a subtle and polished language; a host of words are used in it to show respect and politeness. This emphasis on politeness, which is reflected in the vocabulary, is known as adab and to some extent as takalluf in Urdu. These words are generally used when addressing elders, or people with whom one is not acquainted. For example, the English pronoun ‘you’ can be translated into three words in Urdu the singular forms tu (derogatory or highly informal) and tum (informal and showing intimacy called “apna pan” in Urdu) and the plural form āp (formal and respectful).

Another example is the English affirmation ‘yes’, which can be translated into two words in Urdu according to the level of politeness one wishes to maintain, and there are subtle unspoken laws that govern the use of these two words together, a remnant of the royal history of the language. The word “haan” is often used colloquially and informally, and the word “ji” is used in more formal conversation or when addressing an elder. The combination “ji haan” is the politest way to say ‘yes’, while the combination “haan ji” is highly likely to be considered impolite, though certainly not offensive.

Writing system

Main article: Urdu alphabet
Further information: Hindustani orthography
 

The Urdu Nastaʿliq alphabet, with names in the Devanāgarī and Latin alphabets

Persian script

Urdu is written right-to left in an extension of the Persian alphabet, which is itself an extension of the Arabic alphabet. Urdu is associated with the Nastaʿlīq script style of Persian calligraphy, whereas Arabic is generally written in the modernized Naskh style. Nasta’liq is notoriously difficult to typeset, so Urdu newspapers were hand-written by masters of calligraphy, known as katib or khush-navees, until the late 1980s.

Kaithi script

Urdu was also written in the Kaithi script. A highly-Persianized and technical form of Urdu was the lingua franca of the law courts of the British administration in Bengal, Bihar, and the North-West Provinces & Oudh. Until the late 19th century, all proceedings and court transactions in this register of Urdu were written officially in the Persian script. In 1880, Sir Ashley Eden, the Lieutenant-Governor of Bengal abolished the use of the Persian alphabet in the law courts of Bengal and Bihar and ordered the exclusive use of Kaithi, a popular script used for both Urdu and Hindi.[30] Kaithi’s association with Urdu and Hindi was ultimately eliminated by the political contest between these languages and their scripts, in which the Persian script was definitively linked to Urdu.

Devanagari script

More recently in India, Urdu speakers have adopted Devanagari for publishing Urdu periodicals and have innovated new strategies to mark Urdū in Devanagari as distinct from Hindi in Devanagari.[31] The popular Urdu monthly magazine, महकता आंचल (Mahakta Anchal), is published in Delhi in Devanagari in order to target the generation of Muslim boys and girls who do not know the Persian script.[32] Such publishers have introduced new orthographic features into Devanagari for the purpose of representing Urdu sounds. One example is the use of अ (Devanagari a) with vowel signs to mimic contexts of ع (‘ain). To Urdu publishers, the use of Devanagari gives them a greater audience, but helps them to preserve the distinct identity of Urdu when written in Devanagari.[citation needed]

Roman script

Urdu is occasionally also written in the Roman script. Roman Urdu has been used since the days of the British Raj, partly as a result of the availability and low cost of Roman movable type for printing presses. The use of Roman Urdu was common in contexts such as product labels. Today it is regaining popularity among users of text-messaging and Internet services and is developing its own style and conventions. Habib R. Sulemani says, “The younger generation of Urdu-speaking people around the world, especially Pakistan, are using Romanised Urdu on the Internet and it has become essential for them, because they use the Internet and English is its language. Typically, in that sense, a person from Islamabad in Pakistan may chat with another in Delhi in India on the Internet only in Roman Urdū. They both speak the same language but would have different scripts. Moreover, the younger generation of those who are from the English medium schools or settled in the west, can speak Urdu but can’t write it in the traditional Arabic script and thus Roman Urdu is a blessing for such a population.”[33] Roman Urdu also holds significance among the Christians of Pakistan and North India. Urdū was the dominant native language among Christians of Karachi and Lahore in present-day Pakistan and Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh Rajasthan in India, during the early part of the nineteenth and twentieth century, and is still used by Christians in these places. Pakistani and Indian Christians often used the Roman script for writing Urdū. Thus Roman Urdū was a common way of writing among Pakistani and Indian Christians in these areas up to the 1960s. The Bible Society of India publishes Roman Urdū Bibles which enjoyed sale late into the 1960s (though they are still published today). Church songbooks are also common in Roman Urdū. However, the usage of Roman Urdū is declining with the wider use of Hindi and English in these states.[citation needed]

Transliteration of Urdu

Usually, bare transliterations of Urdu into Roman letters omit many phonemic elements that have no equivalent in English or other languages commonly written in the Latin alphabet. A comprehensive system has emerged with specific notations to signify non-English sounds, but it can only be properly read by someone already familiar with Urdu, Persian, or Arabic for letters such as:ژ خ غ ط ص or ق and Hindi for letters such as ڑ. This script may be found on the Internet, and it allows people who understand the language but without knowledge of their written forms to communicate with each other.

Examples
English Urdu Transliteration Notes
Hi السلام علیکم assalāmu ‘alaikum lit. “Peace be upon you.” (from Arabic)
Hello و علیکم السلام waˈalaikum assalām lit. “And upon you, peace.” Response to assalāmu ‘alaikum (from Arabic)
Hello (آداب (عرض ہے ādāb (arz hai) lit. “Regards (are expressed)”, a very formal secular greeting
Goodbye خُدا حافظ khuda hāfiz lit. “May God be your Guardian” (from Persian).
yes ہاں n casual
yes جی formal
yes جی ہاں jī hān confident formal
no نہ casual
no نہیں، جی نہیں nahīn, jī nahīn casual; jī nahīn formal
please مہربانی meharbānī lit. “kindness” Also used for “thank you”
thank you شُکریہ shukrīā from Arabic shukran
Please come in تشریف لائیے tashrīf laīe lit. “(Please) bring your honour”
Please have a seat تشریف رکھیئے tashrīf rakhīe lit. “(Please) place your honour”
I am happy to meet you آپ سے مل کر خوشی ہوئی āp se mil kar khushī hūyī
Do you speak English? کیا آپ انگریزی بولتے ہیں؟ kya āp angrezī bolte hain? lit. “Do you speak English?”
I do not speak Urdu. میں اردو نہیں بولتا/بولتی main urdū nahīn boltā/boltī boltā is masculine, boltī is feminine
My name is … میرا نام ۔۔۔ ہے merā nām …. hai
Which way to Lahore? لاھور کس طرف ہے؟ lāhaur kis taraf hai? lit. “What direction is Lahore in?”
Where is Lucknow? لکھنؤ کہاں ہے؟ Lakhnau kahān hai
Urdu is a good language. اردو اچھی زبان ہے urdū achhī zabān hai lit. “Urdu is a good language”

Sample text

The following is a sample text in zabān-e urdū-e muʻallā (formal Urdu), of the Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (by the United Nations):

Nastaliq text (used in Pakistan and India)

دفعہ 1: تمام انسان آزاد اور حقوق و عزت کے اعتبار سے برابر پیدا ہوۓ ہیں۔ انہیں ضمیر اور عقل ودیعت ہوئی ہے۔ اس لئے انہیں ایک دوسرے کے ساتھ بھائی چارے کا سلوک کرنا چاہئے

Transliteration (ALA-LC)

Dafʻah 1: Tamām insān āzād aur ḥuqūq o ʻizzat ke iʻtibār se barābar paidā hu’e haiṇ. Unheṇ zamīr aur ʻaql wadīʻat hu’ī he. Isli’e unheṇ ek dūsre ke sāth bhā’ī chāre kā sulūk karnā chāhi’e.

IPA Transcription

d̪əfa ek: t̪əmam ɪnsan azad̪ ɔɾ hʊquq o ʔizət̪ ke ɪʔt̪ɪbaɾ se bəɾabəɾ pɛda hʊe hẽ. ʊnʱẽ zəmiɾ ɔɾ ʔəqəl ʋədiət̪ hʊi he. ɪslɪe ʊnʱẽ ek d̪usɾe ke sat̪ʰ bʱai tʃaɾe ka sʊluk kəɾna tʃahɪe.

Gloss (word-for-word)

Article 1: All humans free[,] and rights and dignity *(‘s) consideration from equal born are. To them conscience and intellect endowed is. Therefore, they one another *(‘s) with brotherhood *(‘s) treatment do must.

Translation (grammatical)

Article 1: All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience. Therefore, they should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.

Note: *(‘s) represents a possessive case which when written is preceded by the possessor and followed by the possessed, unlike the English ‘of’.

Literature

Urdu has become a literary language only in recent centuries, as Persian and Arabic were formerly the idioms of choice for “elevated” subjects. However, despite its relatively late development, Urdu literature boasts some world-recognised artists and a considerable corpus.[citation needed]

Prose

Religious

Urdu holds the largest collection of works on Islamic literature and Sharia after Arabic. These include translations and interpretation of the Qur’an as well as commentary on Hadith, Fiqh, history, spirituality, Sufism and metaphysics. A great number of classical texts from Arabic and Persian, have also been translated into Urdu. Relatively inexpensive publishing, combined with the use of Urdu as a lingua franca among Muslims of South Asia, has meant that Islam-related works in Urdu far outnumber such works in any other South Asian language.[citation needed] Popular Islamic books are also written in Urdu.[citation needed]

Astrology It is interesting to note that a treatise on Astrology was penned in Urdu by Pandit Roop Chand Joshi in the eighteenth century. The book, known as LAL KITAB, is widely popular in North India among astrologers and was written at a time when Urdu was very much spoken in the Brahmin families of that region.[citation needed]

Literary

Secular prose includes all categories of widely known fiction and non-fiction work, separable into genres.[citation needed]

The dāstān, or tale, a traditional story which may have many characters and complex plotting. This has now fallen into disuse.[citation needed]

The afsāna, or short story, probably the best-known genre of Urdu fiction. The best-known afsāna writers, or afsāna nigār, in Urdu are Munshi Premchand, Saadat Hasan Manto, Rajinder Singh Bedi, Krishan Chander, Qurratulain Hyder (Qurat-ul-Ain Haider), Ismat Chughtai, Ghulam Abbas, and Ahmad Nadeem Qasimi. Towards the end of last century Paigham Afaqui’s novel Makaan appeared with a reviving force for Urdu novel resulting into writing of novels getting a boost in Urdu literature and a number of writers like Ghazanfer, Abdus Samad, Sarwat Khan and Musharraf Alam Zauqi have taken the move forward. Munshi Premchand, became known as a pioneer in the afsāna, though some contend that his were not technically the first as Sir Ross Masood had already written many short stories in Urdu.[citation needed]

Novels form a genre of their own, in the tradition of the English novel.[citation needed]

Other genres include saférnāma (travel story), mazmoon (essay), sarguzisht(account/narrative), inshaeya(satirical essay), murasela(editorial), and khud navvisht (autobiography).[citation needed]

Poetry

Main article: Urdu poetry
Further information: Urdu poets

Urdu has been one of the premier languages of poetry in South Asia for two centuries, and has developed a rich tradition in a variety of poetic genres. The ‘Ghazal‘ in Urdu represents the most popular form of subjective music and poetry, while the ‘Nazm‘ exemplifies the objective kind, often reserved for narrative, descriptive, didactic or satirical purposes. Under the broad head of the Nazm we may also include the classical forms of poems known by specific names such as ‘Masnavi‘ (a long narrative poem in rhyming couplets on any theme: romantic, religious, or didactic), ‘Marsia‘ (an elegy traditionally meant to commemorate the martyrdom of Hazrat Husayn ibn Ali, grandson of Muhammad, and his comrades of the Karbala fame), or ‘Qasida’ (a panegyric written in praise of a king or a nobleman), for all these poems have a single presiding subject, logically developed and concluded. However, these poetic species have an old world aura about their subject and style, and are different from the modern Nazm, supposed to have come into vogue in the later part of the nineteenth century.[citation needed]

Probably the most widely recited, and memorised genre of contemporary Urdu poetry is nāt—panegyric poetry written in praise of the Prophet Muhammad. Nāt can be of any formal category, but is most commonly in the ghazal form. The language used in Urdu nāt ranges from the intensely colloquial to a highly Persified formal language. The great early 20th century scholar Imam Ahmed Rida Khan, who wrote many of the most well known nāts in Urdu (the collection of his poetic work is Hadaiq-e-Baqhshish), epitomised this range in a ghazal of nine stanzas (bayt) in which every stanza contains half a line each of Arabic, Persian, formal Urdu, and colloquial Hindi. The same poet composed a salām—a poem of greeting to the Prophet Muhammad, derived from the unorthodox practice of qiyam, or standing, during the mawlid, or celebration of the birth of the Prophet—Mustafā Jān-e Rahmat, which, due to being recited on Fridays in some Urdu speaking mosques throughout the world, is probably the more frequently recited Urdu poems of the modern era. Another notable nāt writer (natkhwan) is Maulana Shabnam Kamali whose nāts have been widely appreciated & acknowledged.[citation needed]

Another important genre of Urdu prose are the poems commemorating the martyrdom of Husayn ibn Ali Allah hiss salam and Battle of Karbala, called noha (نوحہ) and marsia. Anees and Dabeer are famous in this regard.[citation needed]

Terminology

Ash’ār (اشعار) (Couplet). It consists of two lines called Misra (مصرعہ); first line is called Misra-e-oola (مصرع اولی) and the second is called ‘Misra-e-sānī’ (مصرعہ ثانی). Each verse embodies a single thought or subject (sing) She’r (شعر).[citation needed]

Urdu poetry example

This is Ghalib‘s famous couplet in which he compares himself to his great predecessor, the master poet Mir:[34]

ریختے کے تمہی استاد نہیں ہو غالب
کہتے ہیں اگلے زمانے میں کوئی میر بھی تھا
Transliteration
Rekhta ke tumhinustād tu nahīn ho Ghālib
Kahte hain agle zamāne men ko’ī Mīr bhī thā

1- Iqrar ma kaha onke inkar se lazzat

   bardta ha shoq Ghalib on ke nahe nahe se.
        (by Riaz Dukhi from Swat.)
Translation
You are not the only master of Rekhta*, Ghalib
They say that in the past there also was someone named Mir.
  • Rekhta was the name for the Urdu/Hindi language in Ghalib’s days, when the distinction had not yet been made.[citation needed]

Urdu and Hindi

Main article: Hindi-Urdu grammar

Because of their identical grammar and nearly identical core vocabularies, most linguists do not distinguish between Urdu and Hindi as separate languages — at least not in reference to the informal spoken registers. For them, ordinary informal Urdu and Hindi can be seen as variants of the same language (Hindustani) with the difference being that Urdu is supplemented with a Perso-Arabic vocabulary and Hindi a Sanskritic vocabulary. Additionally, there is the convention of Urdu being written in Persio-Arabic script, and Hindi in Devanagari. The standard, “proper” grammars of both languages are based on Khariboli grammar — the dialect of the Delhi region. So, with respect to grammar, the languages are mutually intelligible when spoken, and can be thought of as two written variants of the same language.[citation needed]

Hindustani is the name often given to this language as it developed over hundreds of years throughout India (which formerly included what is now Pakistan). In the same way that the core vocabulary of English evolved from Old English (Anglo-Saxon) but includes a large number of words borrowed from French and other languages (whose pronunciations often changed naturally so as to become easier for speakers of English to pronounce), what may be called Hindustani can be said to have evolved from Sanskrit while borrowing many Persian and Arabic words over the years, and changing the pronunciations (and often even the meanings) of those words. This usually made the words easier for Hindustani speakers to pronounce and also more pleasant than the coarse original sounds. Therefore, Hindustani is the language as it evolved organically just like many other languages in the world.[citation needed]

Linguistically speaking, Standard Hindi is a form of colloquial Hindustani, with lesser use of Persian and Arabic loanwords, while inheriting its formal vocabulary from Sanskrit; Standard Urdu is also a form of Hindustani, de-Sanskritised, with a significant part of its formal vocabulary consisting of loanwords from Persian and Arabic. The difference, thus is in the vocabulary, and not the structure of the language.[citation needed]

The difference is also sociolinguistic: When people speak Hindustani (i.e., when they are speaking colloquially) speakers who are Muslims will usually say that they are speaking Urdu, and those who are Hindus will typically say that they are speaking Hindi, even though they are speaking essentially the same language.[citation needed]

The two standardised registers of Hindustani — Urdu and Hindi — have become so entrenched as separate languages that often nationalists, both Muslim and Hindu, claim that Urdu and Hindi have always been separate languages. There have been some observations that the “fully standardized” Hindi register is artificial enough to make it partially incomprehensible to many people classified as Hindi speakers.[35][36]

Because of the difficulty in distinguishing between Urdu and Hindi speakers in India and Pakistan and estimating the number of people for whom Urdu is a second language the estimated number of speakers is uncertain and controversial. For further information the reader is referred to the following Wikipedia articles: Hindi-Urdu controversy, Hindustani language and Hindi

Software

The Daily Jang/daily waqt was the first Urdu newspaper to be typeset digitally in Nasta’liq by computer. There are efforts underway to develop more sophisticated and user-friendly Urdu support on computers and the Internet. Nowadays, nearly all Urdu newspapers, magazines, journals, and periodicals are composed on computers via various Urdu software programmes, the most widespread of which is InPage Desktop Publishing package. Microsoft has included Urdu language support in all new versions of Windows and both Windows Vista and Microsoft Office 2007 are available in Urdu through Language Interface Pack[37] support. Most Linux Desktop distributions allow the easy installation of Urdu support and translations as well[38].

Difficulty in learning Urdu

Perso-Arabic script has been extended for Urdu with additional letters ٹ,ڈ,ڑ. In order to make the language suitable for the people of South Asia (mainly Pakistan), two letters ہ and ی have added dimensions in use. ہ is used independently as any other letter in words such as ہم (we) and باہم(mutual). As an extended use, ہ is also used denote uniquely defined phonetics of South Asian origin. Here it is referred as do-chashmi hey and it follows the nearest letters of the Perso-Arabic script to render the required phonetic. Some example of the words are دھڑکن(heartbeat),بھارت(India). On the other hand ی is used in two vowel forms: Chhoti ye (ی) and Badi ye(ے). Chhoti ye denotes the vowel sound similar to “ea” in the English word beat as in the word (companion) ساتھی. Chhoti ye is also used as the Urdu consonant “Y” as in word یار (companion/friend). Badi ye is supposed to give the sound similar to “a” in the word “late” (full vowel sound – not like a diphthong) as in the word کے (of). However, in the written form both badi ye and chhoti ye are same when the vowel falls in the middle of a word and the letters need to be joint according to the rules of the Urdu grammar . Badi ye is also used to play a supporting role for a diphthong sound such as the English “i” as in the word “bite” as in the word (wine)مے. However, no difference of ye is seen in words such as کیسا(how) where the vowel comes in the middle of the written word. Similarly the letter و is used to denote vowel sound -oo similar to the word “food” as in لوٹ (loot) , “o” similar to the word “vote” as in دو (two) and it is also used as a consonant “w” similar to the word “war” as in وظیفہ (pension). It is also used as a supportive letter in the diphthong construction similar to the “ou” in the word “mount” as in the word کون (who). و is silent in many word of Persian origin such as خواب (dream), خواہش (desire). It has diminutive sound similar to “ou” in words such as “would”,”could” as in the words خود (self), خوش (happy). The vowel/accent marks (اعراب ) mainly support the core Arabic vowels.Non-Arabic vowels such as -o- in the more (مور- peacock) and the -a- as in Estonia (ایسٹونیا) are referred as مجہول(alien/ ignorant phonetics) and hence are not supported by the vowel/accent marks (اعراب). A description of these vowel marks and the word formation in Urdu can be found at this website.

References

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  3. ^ Linguistic Lineage for Urdu – Ethnologue
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  6. ^ Hindi By Yamuna Kachru http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=ooH5VfLTQEQC&pg=PA2&lpg=PA2&dq=urdu+heavy+persian&source=bl&ots=dG3qgmaV95&sig=WivP7AW9eRlTcp4oscBoHCBFEE0&hl=en&ei=9sp8SqzpLI6y-AaM5vxG&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=9#v=onepage&q=urdu%20heavy%20persian&f=false
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  9. ^ “Hindi/Urdu Language Instruction”. University of California, Davis. Archived from the original on 2008-04-05. http://web.archive.org/web/20080405210308/http://mesa.ucdavis.edu/hindiurdu/index.html. Retrieved 2008-05-20.
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  16. ^ [2]
  17. ^ “Abstract of speakers’ strength of languages and mother tongues – 2001”. Government of India. http://www.censusindia.gov.in/Census_Data_2001/Census_Data_Online/Language/Statement1.htm. Retrieved 2008-05-10.
  18. ^ “Ethnologue Report for Pakistan”. SIL Ethnologue. http://www.ethnologue.com/show_country.asp?name=pk. Retrieved 2007-10-07.
  19. ^ “The World’s 10 most influential Languages”. Language Today. http://www.andaman.org/BOOK/reprints/weber/rep-weber.htm. Retrieved 2008-02-26.
  20. ^ e.g. Gumperz (1982:20)
  21. ^ India Travelite: Holy Places – Ajmer
  22. ^ [3]
  23. ^ In the lower courts in Pakistan, despite the proceedings taking place in Urdu, the documents are in English whilst in the higher courts, ie the High Courts and the Supreme Court, both documents and proceedings are in English.
  24. ^ Zia, Khaver (1999), “A Survey of Standardisation in Urdu”. 4th Symposium on Multilingual Information Processing, (MLIT-4), Yangon, Myanmar. CICC, Japan
  25. ^ “Urdu in Bihar”. Language in India. http://www.languageinindia.com/feb2003/urduinbihar.html. Retrieved 2008-05-17.
  26. ^ http://jkgad.nic.in/statutory/Rules-Costitution-of-J&K.pdf
  27. ^ “Importance Of Urdu”. GeoTauAisay.com. http://www.geotauaisay.com/2010/08/the-importance-of-urdu/. Retrieved 2010-08-08.
  28. ^ Colin P. Masica, The Indo-Aryan languages. Cambridge Language Surveys (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993). 466.
  29. ^ “About Urdu”. Afroz Taj (University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. http://www.unc.edu/. Retrieved 2008-02-26.
  30. ^ King, 1994.
  31. ^ Ahmad, R., 2006.
  32. ^ Delhi Public Library Catalog; Details for: महकता आंचल
  33. ^ The News, Karachi, Pakistan: Roman Urdu by Habib R Sulemani
  34. ^ Columbia University: Ghazal 36, Verse 11
  35. ^ Gerald B. Kelley, Edward C. Dimock, Bhadriraju Krishnamurti (1992). Dimensions of sociolinguistics in South Asia: papers in memory of Gerald B. Kelley. Oxford & IBH Pub. Co.. ISBN 8120405730. http://books.google.com/?id=O8FhAAAAMAAJ. “… policy of Sanskritization resulted in a variety of Hindi which was far removed from everyday usage and became almost incomprehensible to the common man …
  36. ^ Maria Misra (2007). Vishnu’s crowded temple: India since the Great Rebellion. Allan Lane. http://books.google.com/books?id=DvttAAAAMAAJ. “… This linguistic cleansing not only destroyed Hindustani, but in its hyper-purist form rendered Hindi itself incomprehensible to the less well-educated and …“.
  37. ^ http://www.microsoft.com/downloads/Browse.aspx?displaylang=ur&productID=38DF6AB1-13D4-409C-966D-CBE61F040027
  38. ^ http://aasims.wordpress.com/tag/ubuntu-in-urdu/
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